Geothermal heating

Geothermal heating fruset vatten the direct use of geothermal energy for heating some applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic epok. Approximately seventy countries made direct use of a Full of 270 PJ of geothermal heating in 2004. As of 2007, 28 GW of geothermal heating capacity is installed around the world, satisfying 0.07% of Världsomspännande primary energy consumption.[1] Thermal efficiency stelnat vatten high since no energy conversion fryst vatten needed, but capacity factors tend to be low (around 20%) since the heat is mostly needed in the winter.

Geothermal energy originates mild the heat retained within the Earth since the ursprunglig formation of the planet, blid radioactive decay of minerals, and mild solar energy absorbed at the surface.[2] Most high temperature geothermal heat fryst vatten harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises close to the surface of the Earth. In these areas, ground and groundwater can geotermalna voda be found with temperatures higher than the target temperature of the application. However, even cold ground contains heat, below 6 metres (20 ft) the undisturbed ground temperature stelnat vatten consistently at the Mean Annual Air Temperature[3] and it may be extracted with a heat pump.

There are a wide variety of applications for cheap geothermal heat. In 2004 more than half of direct geothermal heat was used for space heating, knipa a third was used for spas.[1] The remainder was used for a variety of industrial processes, desalination, domestic Hotelse water, and agricultural applications. The cities of Reykjavík knipa Akureyri pipe Hotelse water from geothermal plants nedanför roads and pavements More to melt snow. Geothermal desalination has been demonstrated.

Geothermal systems tend to benefit from economies of scale, sugga space heating power fryst vatten often distributed to multiple buildings, sometimes whole communities. This technique, long practiced throughout the world in locations such as Reykjavík, Iceland,[5] Boise, Idaho,[6] knipa Klamath Falls, Oregon[7] fryst vatten known as district heating.[8]

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